NGO Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands.


                                                                                    01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development (Dip. Int.Dev.)


Edition 01: 08 December, 2009



Tekstvak:         Quarter 3.










Study points : 05 points out of 18

Minimum study time : 125 hours out of 504


The study points are awarded upon passing the consolidated exam  for  Section C : The Model.



Block 8 : Economic aspects.


                            [Study points 03 out of 18]

[Minimum study time: 85 hours out of 504]


The study points are awarded upon passing the consolidated exam  for  Section C : The Model.



Block 8 : Economic aspects.


Section 1 : Project costs.[40 hours]


01.  General introduction. (02 hours)

02. General sketch of the financial structures.(02 hours)

03. Short budget analysis. (02 hours)

04. Budget organisation. (02 hours)

05. Description of the local contributions. (02 hours)

06. Method for calculating local contributions. (02 hours)

07. Relationship between local money and formal money.(02 hours)

08. The budget (02  hours)

09. The budget in a form requested by donors/financing parties. (02 hours )

10. Annual expenses (budgets per year). (02 hours )

11. Quarterly budgets. (02 hours )

12. Excel spreadsheets for the preparation of the budget.(02 hours )

13. The sustainability of the system.(02 hours )

14. Tenders. (02 hours )

15. The bank structures with limitations imposed on the project coordinator.(02 hours )

16. Auditing structures. (02 hours)

17. Protection of donors and financing parties.(02 hours )


Section 1 report :  (06 hours) .




Section 1 : Project costs.  [40 hours]


04. Budget organisation. ( At least 02 hours)


The budget at point 7.10 of the Model for integrated development projects  conforms generally with requirements expressed by most donors and financing parties. The Model example is based on the lines indicated by Europe-Aid. (European Commission). However, the submission of a budget in the form considered most «correct » by each donor agency is essential to the financing of projects. Donor preferences should be studies each time, and adaptations made where necessary to the documents provided in the Model.


Taking the innovative aspects of integrated development projects into account, adaptation  the meet the (traditional) requirements of the aid sector proved to be extenuating. It was like trying to square a circle.


One of the main difficulties is that integrated development projects are about creating social, financial, productive, and services structures which can allow people in each project area to enjoy a good quality of life. For instance, they do not «measure »  a number of girls who begin primary studies. They create sustainable structures enabling all girls in each project area to go to school.  They are not about drilling a bore-hole and putting a hand-pump on it. They create sustainable structures enabling everyone in a project area to permanently benefit from a good supply of drinking water.


The typical budget is horizontally divided into 9 groups. Groups 1-7 are in turn split up into sub-groups. The sub-groups are in turn divided into specific budget items. The number of items will vary from one project to another accordance to the preferences expressed by the local populations. Usually the budget can be expected to contain about 200 items.


The main budget groups are :


01. Human resources.

02. Travelling costs.

03. Purchase and hire of material, vehicles, and «administrative »  supplies (excluding goods and services linked to the individual project structures planned)

04. The costs of the administrative centre (consumables) and of general project management.

05. Various external costs such as financial costs, insurance, audit, monitoring etc.

06. Separate costs for each of the structures to be created.

07. Supply of formal money goods and services, including consultants’ costs.

08. Total 1-7

09. Unforeseen, as a percentage of total 8.

10. Total 8+9

11. Forfeit for administrative costs.

12. Total 10 + 11


The truly operative part of the budget is section 6. Most of groups 1-5 and 7 are expressed in formal money.


The vertical columns of the budget are :


01 : The activity code.

02 : Activity description.

03 : The project phase or phases for the execution of the activity.

04 : The amount contributed by donors , financing parties.

05 : The number of hours’ work contributed by the local populations.

06 : Conversion into formal money expressing the value of work contributed by the populations.

07 : Eventual formal money contribution made by the NGO consortium in charge of project execution.

08 : The total of columns 4+6+7


The vertical columns (05 and 06) of the budget are innovative.


1. Research.


Review the forms of the budgets of at least three development projects in your project area, where possible, the budgets of projects that you have had personal contact with. On one page, make at least  four columns. The title of the first columns in «Integrated project » , the second column is for «Local Project 1 » ,the third for «Local  project 2 » the fourth for « Local Project 3 » etc.  In the first column write in the 12 groups of items in the list above. Next to each group list the equivalent items for the other projects. This is about the main lines of the organisation of the budget. You do not need to go into details about individual items.


2. Research.


On one page, note the conclusions to be drawn from the comparison you have made.


3. Research.


Take another look at the budgets for the projects in your chosen area used for the preceding exercises. Mark 9 vertical  columns on one page and at least 5 horizontal blocks.

The first horizontal block is for the description of the columns.

The titles for your 9 columns are :

Column 1 «Project »

Columns 2-9 the vertical columns 01-08 listed above.. 

The second horizontal block is called «Integrated project » , the third «Local Project 1 » ,the fourth  «Local  project 2 », the fifth « Local Project 3 » etc.

Next to each project make a comparison amongst the projects by filling the respective amounts in.


4. Research.


On one page, note the conclusions to be drawn from the comparisons you have made.


5. Research.


During part 02. General chart showing the financial structures of integrated development projects.

 in this section of block 8 an analysis was made of the direct  formal money expenditure at each of  three levels. Explain on one page why, in general, formal money is needed for groups 1-5 and group 7 of the budget.




"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them."

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.


“Poverty is created scarcity”

Wahu Kaara, point 8 of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty, 58th annual NGO Conference, United Nations, New York 7th September 2005.



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