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                                                                                    01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development (Dip. Int.Dev.)


Edition 01: 06 December, 2009



Tekstvak:         Quarter 3.










Study points : 05 points out of 18

Minimum study time : 125 hours out of 504


The study points are awarded upon passing the consolidated exam  for  Section C : The Model.



Seventh block:  Regional and national plans.


Study points : 01 point out of 18

Minimum study time: 24 hours out of  504


The study points are awarded upon passing the consolidated exam  for  Section C : The Model.



Seventh block:  Regional and national plans.


Section 4: Plan proposal for the integrated development of your country.

Minimum study time: 5 hours out of 504


02.00 Hours : The information needed.

02.00 Hours : Preparation of the plan.

01.00 Hour   : Report.


Exam Block 7

Time allowed: 3 hours out of 504



Section 4: Plan proposal for the integrated development of your country.


The information needed. (At least 2 hours)


For regional plan  structures refer to part 07. Sketch for national plans in section 1 anthropological analysis of the third block solutions to the problems ot the course.


The creation of local economy networks at regional level was discussed extensions to national level plans in  section 1 of this seventh block : National and regional plans.


The relationships amongst regional-level system were analysed in relationships  with other projects at national level in section 2  of this  seventh block..


In this Section 4   our purpose is to develop a national integrated development plan.


The Model makes the drafting of fully detailed national or regional integrated development plans to meet nearly all of  the Millennium goals quick, easy, and cheap. How quickly the plans are prepared depends on the number of people (usually students or active members of grass-roots NGOs) and the number of individual projects (about 20 for each million inhabitants) involved. The maximum period for plan preparation is about three months, the minimum period one month.

In Section 3  of this seventh block  regional level plans were developed..

Obviously, cor countries with small populations, the regional plans drawn up under  Section 3 are already sufficient to meet requirements at national level.

An example (in French) of a national plan for a country with a small population is the Plan for the integrated development of Gabon .


Many countries have larger populations. An example (in French) of a national plan for a country with a larger population is the National plan for Niger , a  country with a population of 13.500.000 habitants. Countries like Niger have several regions, provinces or districts.

For countries (like Niger) with a «middle-sized » population it is possible to choose either :

a) To make several regional plans and collate the documentations to make a National Plan, or

b) Jump the Regional Plans and make a single National Plan, which in practice contemporaneously set up a series of regional plans.


For countries with large populations, if may be better to prepare plans at regional level and then collate the regional plans to form a single national plan. This is the solution discussed here.


The information needed.


The information needed  described in Section 3 is necessary for each region in the country. If regional plan proposals have been prepared, all the information needed for the national plan has already been assembled.


In some cases, regional plans for some regions may be available, but not for other regions. In that case, regional plans for the « missing » regions should be prepared.


The national plan.


The regional plans are grouped together (collated) to form a national plan.


The National Plan therefore comprises a section where basic statistics are assembled at national level, a very short section indicating the priorities for the execution of individual and/or regional plans, and, finally, the various regional plans themselves. The priorities for the execution of the plans is a  political decision.


All individual (or regional) plans can be executed contemporaneously since the project coordinators for them have already been trained during the execution of the regional plan proposals. In principle, each individual project follows its own route. It is quite possible to have hundreds, if not thousands, of individual projects in execution at the same time.


Where financial means are available to carry out all of the individual plans at the same time, then politicians do not need to set up a list of priorities. Where the means available insufficient for the realisation of all of the projects contemporaneously, an order of priorities will have to be decided.


A possible order of priorities for the execution of individual projects.


Taking the primary need to stop migration from rural areas to urban slums and large towns in general, the following may form one possible solution :


Poor rural areas in the poorest regions..

Poor rural areas in other regions.

Less-poor rural areas in the poorest regions.

Less poor areas in other regions.

Poor urban areas, secondary town in the poorest regions.

Poor urban areas in the secondary towns in other regions.

Poor urban areas in the largest towns in poor regions.

Poor urban areas in the largest towns in other areas.


Personnel needed


Once the regional plans have been prepared,  the national plan can be drawn up by one person with a single computer in the course of one month.


The nature of on-going monitoring and management of the National Plan will depend on the political decisions taken.


For the on-going management of a national plan, a small office with 4 (possibly 5) people  should be enough :


-one person for the collection (receipt) of information supplied at regional (and individual project) levels

-one person for the coordination of the information and the creation de statistics.

-one person for the physical reproduction of the information (brochures ; reports etc)

-one person for external relations (government ;  press ; requests for information ; communications with those responsible at regional level : etc).

- (optional) one person for on-going analysis of developments.


Financing the preparation of the national plan and its follow-up. 


In principle, the regional systems cover the costs of the preparation of a National Level project.


Most on-going maintenance costs fall under the local money systems. However, some costs may need to be paid in formal money.


The contributions made by regional systems to the national one  will most probably be decided on the des basis of the number of individual project areas in each region.  For example, a national level project with 200 individual  projects split up amongst  4 regions, one region with 90  individual projects, a second one with 60 projects, a third one with  30 projects, and a fourth one with 20 projects, the contributions made by the regions would be  45%, 30%, 15% et 10% respectively.  


The government may wish to participate in the management of the system.  In principle, however, efforts should be made  to keep the system of local economies independent of the formal economic (formal-money) structures.


Profound economic consequences for the national government.


The introduction of local economic systems throughout the national territory makes it easier for governments to manage their affairs. Above all, after the period of tax-franchise conceded to each individual integrated development project, the tax base the government can rely on will be vastly extended, while at the same time, formal money outgo of the government will be greatly reduced.


1. Opinion.


You are taking part in an international congress on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. You  explain to the participant show it is that the preparation of a national integrated development plan is practically without cost. On one page, give a summary of your presentation.


2. Opinion.


On one page make a list of the questions your listeners put to you at the end of the presentation.


3. Opinion.


Set out on one page how you answered the questions.


4. Research.


Set out on one page how the  contributions made to the cost and follow-up of national-level projects are covered  at individual project level through the regions. Do you think the system foreseen is simple, just and efficient ?.


In the example of a national system with  200 projects given above, the national population would be about 10.000.000  Provision is made for the management of the whole system by a qualified team of  four (optionally five) people. Since the four (or five) members of the team do qualified work, they may earn, say, 14 local units per hour. Suppose each one works 1800 hours a year.  That would mean that a team of 5 would in the aggregate work for 9000 hours a year,  for a total of  126.000 local money units. The cost of 126.000  local money units would be divided amongst the  200 local money systems, producing a cost of 630 local money units per local money system per year.


Each of the local systems has more or less 200 tank commissions. That means that the 630 units for the individual project area must be divided by 200, producing 3,15 local money units for each tank commission per year. Supposing each tank commission serves 150 adult members, 3,15 local money units divided by 150 produces  0,021 local money units per person per year. The systems are based on an average of  10 local money units for each hour´s work..  That means that for each individual person , the cost of the management of the national system would represent 10 units multiplied by 0.021 hours of work.  This is  1/476 of an hour, or  7.5 seconds a year.


5. Opinion.


Give a one/page analysis of this calculation..  


 Seventh block :  Section 4: Plan proposal for the integrated development of your country. 

 Seventh block :  Regional and national plans.

Main index  for the Diploma in Integrated  Development  (Dip. Int. Dev.)

 List of key words.

 List of references.

  Course chart.

 Technical aspects.

 Courses available.

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"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them."

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.


“Poverty is created scarcity”

Wahu Kaara, point 8 of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty, 58th annual NGO Conference, United Nations, New York 7th September 2005.



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