1771 ED Wieringerwerf,
E-mail: (nameatendofline)@xs4all.nl : bakensverzet
Incorporating innovative social, financial, economic, local administrative and productive structures, numerous renewable energy applications, with an important role for women in poverty alleviation in rural and poor urban environments.
"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them"
Gesell, Silvio The Natural Economic Order
Revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228
05.35 Smoke hazard elimination structures.
Aeration, and in particular the elimination of smoke in and around homes in developing countries is one of the most important aspects for a healthy life. It is widely overlooked.
poor countries, and in particular in Africa, the most widely used source of
energy is biomass in the form of wood, charcoal, crop wastes, and animal dung.
2.4 billion people use this biomass for cooking purposes. If coal is included
the figure becomes 3 billion. This causes at least 1.6 million deaths per year
(ITDG rapport “Smoke – The Killer in the Kitchen”, 2003;
see also WHO World Health Report 1992;) including nearly a million children. The
level of air pollution in the homes of the poorest in developing countries can
be 100 times higher than the maximum acceptable levels for health purposes. An
article in “The Lancet”, edition 6 December 2003, “Report highlights hazard of
smoke from indoor fires” reports:
extensive and long term exposure to combustion products in confined environments
is a major cause of disease .... this is a priority area for research and
Not only individual homes but entire villages are subjected to the smoke hazard two or three times per day around the time when meals are being prepared.
Projects under the Model must therefore introduce locally built high efficiency cooking stoves to reduce and if possible eliminate the smoke hazard from family homes and villages. The ecological advantages and CO2 savings initiatives relating to and the economic aspects of the introduction of high efficiency stoves in project areas are discussed in detail in chapter 4.