The Model

Draft projects

Articles published


Annexed material


 About Bakens Verzet




T.E.(Terry) Manning,

Schoener 50,

1771 ED Wieringerwerf,

The Netherlands.

Tel: 0031-227-604128

Homepage: http://www.flowman.nl

E-mail: (nameatendofline)@xs4all.nl : bakensverzet



Incorporating innovative social, financial, economic, local administrative and productive structures, numerous renewable energy applications, with an important role for women in poverty alleviation in rural and poor urban environments.



"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them"


Gesell, Silvio The Natural Economic Order

Revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228



Edition 11: 07 October 2006


2. Planned results of the action.

N.B: For each planned result, verifiable indicators enabling on-going project progress to be identified, described and measured should be given. Refer also to the Logical Framework document.

2.1 Impact on final beneficiaries and target groups in the project area.

Maximum 2 pages. Indicate how the action will improve:

(a) the situation of the target groups and final beneficiaries.

All 50.000 inhabitants, without exclusion, benefit from all of the social, financial and productive structures and services set up during the project.

Inhabitants will have 25 litres of clean drinking water per person per day at a distance which should not exceed 200 metres from their homes, a reserve supply of 25 litres of clean drinking water  per person per day next to 35 well sites, and a supply of a similar amount of  non potable water for personal purposes from rain-water harvesting at household level. Dring all seasons, and in particular during the dry season.

A complete appropriate dry composting eco-sanitation system will be installed in each of the 10.000 homes in the project area.

A contribution to the fight against water-borne diseases will also be made through hygiene education through the formation of 200 Health Clubs for women (however the Clubs will also be open to the participation of men), and the introduction of institutionalised hygiene education courses in the 40 schools in the project area together eco-sanitation and drinking water supplies there.

Students and other persons, especially women, who wish to study in the evening  will be able to do so under acceptable lighting conditions in 200 study rooms built under the project and fitted with photovoltaic lighting equipment.

The introduction of high efficiency  bio-mass stoves made in the project area will lead to a reduction (and later, to the elimination) of the importation of fuels for cooking into the project area.

The work load on women will be reduced through the elimination of the need for them to fetch water and wood for cooking purposes.

Local value added will be increase by the local recycling of non-organic waste in the project area.

Available financial resources (both local money under the LETS structures set up and formal money) will be constantly recycling interest-free within the community in the project area.

Local industrial and agricultural production will be increased through the use local money LETS systems and interest-free revolving  micro-credit systems.

Ecological and sustainable exploitation of (name the areas concerned) natural and tourist resources in the project area will be promoted in cooperation with the (name the Ministries involved) and local flora and fauna protected.

About 4000 jobs will be created.

Young people will be trained to repeat and multiply this innovative pilot initiative in other parts of (host country) and in other countries.

 (b)Describe where applicable the responsibilities and technical and management capacities of the various partners involved in project execution.

(This is not usually applicable to projects under the Model. )

(c) Describe the situation WITH THE ACTION in relation to the situation WITHOUT THE ACTION.

The project supplies basic structures necessary to an acceptable quality of life, including but not limited to hygiene education, supply a clean drinking water, and sanitation facilities to all of the 50.000 people, without exclusion, in the project area. At the same time the project makes a complete range of self-managed social, financial and productive structures available to the inhabitants. All these structures should be put in place during the first 15 months of project execution. However, some specific initiatives will only begin towards the end of the 24 months’ executive period of the project. The production of  items necessary for eco-sanitation and for rainwater harvesting, and of improved cooking stoves and  mini-briquettes for them  will continue beyond the 24 months’ executive period.

Improvement in the quality of life of all the inhabitants in the project area and in particular that of the women and children there should have become a reality by the close of the first period of 24 months. However, several more years will be needed to totally eliminate poverty fro the project area.  During the first 24months about 4000 jobs will have been created, contributing to the reduction of unemployment in the project area. Women will no longer be fetching water over long distances and will be participating actively in the operation of the social, financial and productive  organs set up.  Each family will on an average have been able to benefit from an interest-free micro-credit for about Euro 100-250. Over the first ten year project cycle, each family will receive interest-free micro-credits for productivity increase for on an average about Euro 1500. The entire population should be actively participating in the local money systems set up. A beginning will have been made to the reduction of financial leakage from the project area and the liberation of more human resources for local production and development.

A contribution will already have been made to a reduction in the incidence of water-borne diseases through the formation of 200 Health Clubs and hygiene education courses in the schools, the supply of clean drinking water, clean conditions around boreholes wells and water tanks, the improvement of drainage in public places, the operation of waste recycling structures, and a start to the installation of 10.000 structures sanitary structures in each home in the project area, to be completed over a period of  about 4-5 years.

Fight against smoke hazards to health, especially of that of women and children, will have begun with the introduction of improved cooking stoves and mini-briquettes for them. Reduction on the dependence of the population in the project area on imported fuels for cooking and lighting  will have commenced. Some of the families will no longer have to fetch wood for cooking.  Over a period of 4-5 years,  distribution of the  20.000 stoves necessary will have been completed, and production of the mini-briquettes necessary for their operation under way.

The following social structures will be in place :

200 structures for basic hygiene education for women, and on-going systematic hygiene education courses in the schools.

200 tank commissions.
35 well commissions.
1 project level management unit.
A three-tiered social security system for the elderly, the sick and the handicapped.


The following financial structures will be in place:


A self-run cooperative interest-free, inflation-free local money system enabling limitless transfer of locally produced and consumed goods and services to take place.

A self-run cooperative, interest-free micro-credit system for local productivity increase.


The following productive structures will be in place :


Two structures for the production of articles made from gypsum composites, such as those for  sanitation purposes, the high-efficiency stoves, rain-water harvesting.
200 structures for recycling of organic waste, and 35 structures for the recycling of n on-organic waste.
35 structures  for the manufacture of mini-briquettes for the improved stoves ;400 sources for the growing of bio-mass for the mini-briquettes.
200 structures enabling students (including women) to study in the evening.


(d) Describe in detail steps to be taken to monitor the given indicators.


Most of the social, financial, and productive structures set are by the project are physically quantifiable. Since the services are placed at the disposition of all of the inhabitants without exclusion, control and systematic monitoring are  simple to organise. The structures are concentrated in a clearly drawn territory. In particular, clean drinking water and sanitation structures  are physically present following a systematic and  known pattern..


According to the new development principles applied in this project, the basic task of the applicant is on-gong control over project execution. This control is continuous, with the participation of a team including (an executive director, an economist, a civil engineer, a sociologist, a secretariat all or any of whom may physically attend meetings project execution.


In more detail :


For the 200 Health Clubs, the following information is available. Workshop reports; presence at the workshop;  reports on the activities of the clubs; presence at the meetings held by  Health Clubs chosen at random. Copies of printed material for the courses. Research enquiry amongst women. The same applied for the Hygiene education courses in the schools.


For the 200 Tank Commissions, heart of the project, the following information is available: Workshop reports; presence at the workshop;  reports on the activities of the commission; presence at the meetings held by  Commissions hosen at random. Statistics on the activities of the Commissions. Inspection of the physical structures run by the commissions and checking their operation. Enquiries amongst the populations served by specified tank commissions. The same is applicable to the work of the well commissions.


In particular, with regard to clean drinking water services, physical execution of the works according to the project plan,  starting with the well digging or drilling and their equipment, the photovoltaic installations, the presence of guards;  works for the installation of feed pipes. Information on progress made with the construction of tank production units,  tank supports, panel supports and designs for the preparation of moulds for their manufacture. Subsequently, monitoring their production and installation. Monitor the distance between the tank sites and the homes served. Then actively actual supply of drinking water to the families and the action taken to control water quality.


With regard the sanitation structures, monitor the physical execution of works for the construction of the production units foreseen, and for the exploitation of the gypsum quarries.  la suite, Monitor progress made on the design and preparation of forms and moulds for the manufacture of the sanitation systems and their installation. Check installation statistics and statistics on system operation.. Monitor operation amongst random-chosen households. Organise surveys amongst the population.


With regard to the operation of the local financial structures set up : the applicant can carry out a comparison between financial activities at the time of the survey and those applying at the start of the project. Surveys amongst users can be held. A list of activities started after project start-up can be held. Study information and statistics on the operation of the micro-credit systems. Participate in meetings of the management organs of the funds. Physically check the work and operation of the local money transaction registration centres.


The 35 recycling centres can be checked aby physical observation of the cleanliness of the environment in the project area. Surveys amongst users can be held. The recycling centres can be visited. Liaison can be set up with the  Ministry of Public Health and with Public Health inspectors charged with supervision over the recycling centres.


With regard to the introduction of 20.000 high efficiency stoves, the production of mini-briquettes for them, and the elimination of smokes hazards in and around the homes, the physical presence of the stoves in the homes can be checked, surveys held amongst users; visits made to the mini-briquette production units; the books and accounts of the production units checked ; the physical presence of  bio-mass in the fields checked..


(g) Level of implication of other  participating organisations.  


Execution : local populations with the support of the project coordinator and a small team of specialists “the project government”.
Permanent structural monitoring of project execution : the task of the applicant, as “project parliament” .
Auditing commission checking applicant’s books.

Independent audit.


(h)Justification of partners’ roles.


Not usually applicable to projects under the Model.


(i) Team proposed for the execution of the action (describe for each function: do not include the names of individual persons involved).


The project  mobilises and/or employs about 4000 permanently, being about 10% of the target adult population. Here are some examples of permanent jobs. Figures vary from one project to another and are indicative.


200 Health Club leaders;
1000 tank commission members;

200 well commission members;
10 members of the central management unit;
100 person for the registration of local money transactions;
200 local money transaction assistants;
200 local recycling system members;
100 well-level recycling members;
200 guards for structures;
400 farmers for bio-mass for mini-briquettes;
100 mini-briquette manufacturers;
100 manufacturers of gypsum composite products such as tanks, stoves, sanitation systems;
50 installers;
20 maintenance staff;
10 people for water quality control.


Les following professional services are foreseen :


Project coordinator and a team comprising:

1.        1 general consultant for the application of the principles on which the project is based. (24 months)

2.        1 expert in Moraisian workshops. (12 months)

3.        1 hygiene education course expert. (6 months)

4.        1 gypsum composites expert. (24 months)


Auditing commission : seven members. The commission has investigative powers and can view all project documents and actions at any moment.

Independent audit.


2.2 Results


Maximum 1 page. Be specific and quantify the results where possible.


- 001 environmental impact study carried out.
- 001 permanent system coordination structure set up.

- 001 (eco-system; park; lake; fauna; flora; mountain) resources opened to tourism during the project period.
- 200 local autonomous social and financial structures set up.
- 200 tank commissions set up, with 1000 women responsible for them.

                        - 035 well commissions set up, with 250 women responsible for them.

- 001 drinking water structures workshop completed.

- 001 project level drinking water management structure set up.
- 035 wells and/or boreholes with a diameter of at least 8” prepared. (Typical total drilling 3000 meters).

- 100 backup hand-pump systems, including 33 triple unit groups installed as “back-up” to the photovoltaic drinking water structures. 
- 200 tank commission level drinking water structures produced and installed.

- 250 solar pumps installed.

- 075 kilowatt of photovoltaic panels for pumps for distributed drinking water installed.

- 200 kilometres of channelling for drinking water feed-pipe dug and prepared.

- 200 km of drinking water feed-pipe laid.

- 001 structure for the installation and maintenance of solar- and hand-pumps set up, together with spare parts stocks.

- 035 well-commission level drinking water structures set up.

- 035 washing places at well-commission level installed.

- 035 back-up systems for drinking water treatment at schools and clinics installed and structure for the systematic checking of drinking water quality set up-

- 001 workshop for the formation of 200 health clubs held.
- 001 workshop for the formation of  200 social structures held.
- 001 workshop for the formation of local money systems held..
- 035 centres for the registration of local money transactions set up.

- 001 workshop for micro credit structures held.
- 001 complete structure for the management of micro-credits set up.

- 001 workshop for the sourcing and quality control of gypsum resources set up.
- 002 factories for the production of articles made from gypsum composites built.

- 001 workshop for analysis and design of gypsum composite products held.
- 001 workshop for waste recycling systems held.

- 001 compost recycling network set up.

- 001 network for the recycling of non-organic waste set up.

- 10.000 eco-sanitation systems, one in each home in the project area, built and  installed (500-1000 installed by the end of the first 24 months’ executive period).

- Construction and installation 10.000 rain-water harvesting systems, one in each home. (250-500 installed the end of the first 24 months’ executive period).

- Production and installation of 20.000 high efficiency stoves, two in each home.  (1500-2500 in operation by the end of the first 24 months’ executive period).

- 001 workshop for the growing of biomass for mini-briquettes for stoves held..
- 035  units for the production of mini-briquettes for improved stoves built and the production of mini-briquettes commenced.

- 200 agreements for the production of biomass for mini-briquettes reached; production of biomass commenced.

- 200 study rooms built and equipped.

- 200 photovoltaic lighting systems for study purposes installed.

- 020 kilowatt of photovoltaic power for lighting for study purposes installed.
- 035 photovoltaic lighting systems for study purposes at schools installed.

- 005  kilowatt of photovoltaic panels installed at schools for study purposes.

- 001 workshop for the formation of a radio station held.

- 001 local radio station structure set up.

- 001 multiplying factor introduced for emulation in other project areas in the project’s host country.


The “productive” structures mentioned receive funds to cover the formal money costs of their formation. Beneficiaries reimburse these funds into the Cooperative Local Development Fund set up, usually over a period  of 4-5 years. The funds made available to them are interest-free. The repayments are made according to the real possibilities of those involved. Decisions as to the rate of repayment are made by users themselves during the Workshops where the structures are set up. The reimbursements are financed by the sale, for a certain period of time, of part of the production for formal money outside the project area, and, in the case of waste recycling activities, by the “export” for formal money of solid waste which is not recyclable in the project area.


2.3Multiplying effects and value added


Maximum 1 page. Describe the possibilities of reproduction and  extension of the results of the action.


The proposal responds to the goals of and the principles behind the tender in a particularly innovative way. It provides for the development of numerous permanent physical and sustainable social, financial, and productive structures which all become the property of the inhabitants themselves, in the management of which women play a dominating role. The inhabitants participate in  the planning, execution and management of the project structures. They sustainably organise, run, and maintain all of the structures set up at their own cost. The monthly contribution (usually Euro 0,60-0,75 per person) paid by each family into the Cooperative Local Development Fund covers the entire range of services offered, and is affordable even to the poorest families, who benefit from a three tiered social. Security system itself integrated into the project structures. Sustainable hygiene education, drinking water, eco-sanitation systems at household level and structures for the recycling of organic and non-organic waste and for the elimination of smoke hazards inside users’ homes improve the conditions of health in the project area, and in particular that of women and children. Elimination of the use of wood for cooking leads to a reduction in CO2 emissions and to the protection of forests and the environment in general. The project sets up a complete, voluntary, cooperative, interest-free, inflation-free local economic environment entirely managed by the community itself.

The proposed project is fully integrated in an innovative way and represents a world-wide precedent. Poverty can be eliminated in the project area over a period of 4-5 years at a cost of about Euro 105 per person through the supply of a full range of basic structures necessary to a good quality of life, with the creation of several thousand individual and cooperative jobs (in this case about 4.000) (4000 environ) and local money systems enabling  limitless exchanges of locally produced goods and services in the project area. Each family receives on an average at least Euro 1500 in interest-free micro-credits for productivity increase over each period of 10 years. The success of this first project in (name of host country) should lead to the formation of an integrated development strategy at national level, and to pilot projects in other countries. In (host country) a total of (number) projects is needed to give full national coverage, with a total cost of (Euro 5.000.000 times the number of projects). Initial project execution lasts just two years. The entire population of (host country) can therefore in principle receive clean drinking water and sanitation structures before 2015.

Since a group of interested qualified persons interested in coordinating future projects is trained during each single project under the Model, the system on which this project is based is potentially rapidly self-propagating.


At the same time warnings must be given. The rate of acceptation and practical application of the concepts depends on the capacity and leaderships qualities of those responsible (mostly women) for the different structures. While around one water tank optimum utilisation may be made from the local money system put in pace, around another system trading may develop much more slowly. Utilisation of structures such as those for sanitation and those for high-efficiency stoves and mini-briquettes may also be subject to major fluctuations from one place to another. The new  financial structures set up do not substitute the existing  formal money structures. They peacefully co-exist with them. Inhabitants are always free to choose whether to apply the local money system or the formal money system to a given transaction. The way this is done may vary sharply not only from one project area to another, but also within a given project area. 


2.4 Short- and long-term sustainability.


Maximum 3 pages.


a) Short- and long-term impact on target groups (especially final beneficiaries).


The short term  goals of the project are:


a) To carry out a basic hygiene education programme by establishing Community Health Clubs in the project area and promoting hygiene education courses in schools

b) To install technically appropriate sanitation for the people in the project area.

c) To provide a permanent safe drinking water supply in the project area in all foreseeable circumstances.

d) To make safe drinking water available within a radius of 150-200m from users' homes.

e) To contribute to the fight against water-related diseases through hygiene education, the supply of appropriate sanitation and clean drinking water systems.

f) To reduce the work load on women

g) To provide for the continuity of health, sanitation and drinking water systems by establishing appropriate institutional structures.

h) To enable students and others who wish to study in the evening to do so.

i) To avoid the need to import wood into the local system.

j) To introduce efficient bio-mass fuelled means of cooking and solar cookers for daytime applications.

k) To create added value through recycling of non-organic waste.

l) To keep available financial resources (LETS money and formal money) revolving within the beneficiary communities.

m) To stimulate on-going local industrial and agricultural development through the use of local currency (LETS) and micro-credit systems.

n) To create large-scale job opportunities


The long-term goals of the project are:


a)To sustain on-going improvement of the general quality of life well-being and health of the local people.

b)To free more human resources for local production and development.

c)To reduce water-borne diseases so that medical staff and financial resources can be re-directed to other health objectives such as vaccination programmes and preventive medicine.

d)To decrease infant mortality and promote family planning.

e)To increase literacy levels.

f)To eliminate dependency on fuels imported from outside the project area.

g)To help reduce deforestation and global warming.

h)To create value added from locally recycled non-organic solid waste.

i)To create a "maintenance culture" to conserve the investments made.

j)To increase the local pool of expertise so that local people can improve their sustainable well-being and development by identifying and solving problems, including erosion, with a minimum of outside help.

k)To create full employment in the project area.


b) Financial aspects (how will the on-going project activities be financed at the end of project execution).


The project is sustainably  financially self-financing once the planned social and financial structures are in place, and before the distributed drinking water structures  have been installed.


Each family pays 0,60 Euro – 0,75 Euro per person per month into a Cooperative Local Development Fund. Assuming a monthly input of Euro 0,60 per person,  annual revenues for a population de 50.000 person amount to Euro 360.000. Formal money costs for maintenance amount to  Euro 69.500, bearing in mind that most activities take place under the local money systems set up. Formal money interest-free capital for various productive structures set up under the project are also repaid into the Cooperative Local Development Fund, usually over a period of 4-5 years.


At the close of the first period of 10 years of project activity, a large sum, net of all on-going maintenance costs, will have accumulated in the Cooperative Local Development Fund. During the first ten years’ period, these funds are continuously recycled interest-free in the project area for productivity development purposes. The total value of these micro-credit loans is at least Euro 16.000.000, which is at least Euro 1.500 on an average for each family.


Where the initial seed capital is paid by way of  interest-free loan which is repaid in a lump sum at the close of the first ten years period, or where new capital investments  are made in the project area after the first ten years project operation, the amount in the Cooperative Local Development Fund temporarily returns to zero. However, the families continue to make their monthly payments into the Fund, and the capital in the Fund, collective mutual property of the population, gradually builds up again as it did during the first period of ten years.  After 20 years, funds are available where necessary to make  to replacements of capital goods or extensions to project services. The amount in the Cooperative Local Development Fund will in that case once again temporarily return to zero, only to build up again during the third period of ten years so as to sustainably  cover capital investments for an unlimited period of time.  Where the initial seed capital is paid by way of grant, the Fund does not return to zero after the first period of ten years’ activity unless the inhabitants decide to make extensions to the project services. Where the capital accumulated is not used for loan repayment or for extensions to project services, the sum accumulated can become very large, and the amounts available to the families for interest-free micro-credit finance for productivity purposes plentiful.

Of particular interest are the innovative application of the compensation principle and the new possibilities offered under the Kyoto treaty.

Under the compensation principle applied in the Model, users’ monthly contributions of about Euro 0,60 per person are covered by savings on some of their current expenditure as a result of the execution of the project. For instance, where families now spend a large slice of their income for wood for cooking or for drinking water or medicines, these costs will be eliminated or reduced under the projects, releasing formal money for other uses. Wood will not be used. It will be replaced by mini-briquettes grown, produced, and distributed under the LETS local money systems. The supply of drinking water and the maintenance of water supply structures are already covered under the monthly contributions. General increases in living conditions (hygiene education, clean drinking water, sanitation, elimination of smoke, better drainage, a more varied diet) should lead to less illness and less need to buy medicines.

Some sustainable applications under the proposed project applications reduce CO2 emissions. The main one is through the use of locally-produced high efficiency cooking stoves, others are the substitution of the use of kerosene lamps by solar home systems, and of some pumping systems by solar or advanced hand-pump technologies, and the reduction of the use of non-rechargeable batteries. They therefore qualify under the Kyoto treaty for the issue of CER certificates, which can be traded to industrialised countries. The value of these certificates will contribute to covering the cost of the projects and may, over time, cover all their costs, enabling the seed capital to be recycled for other poverty alleviation initiatives.


1.        Institutional level ( will structures enabling activities to be continued at the end of the action be put in place? Will the results of the action be vested in the beneficiary population?).


Apart from structures basic to poverty alleviation and an improved quality of life, such as hygiene education at home and in the schools, water supply, sanitation in the homes at schools and in clinics, solar lighting for study purposes, solar refrigeration for medicines in clinics, improved cooking stoves etc, neither the Model nor the draft rural development projects presented attempt to list all of the initiatives which could take place, as these are as varied as the minds and wishes of the people.

Cooperative interest-free self-terminating building society type structures can be set up at tank commission, well commission, or central project level to finance the purchase of interest-free solar home systems and other renewable energy structures of particular common interest to the people in the project area.

However, any services the local people may consider of special importance can always be included in the project and itemised in the budget. Some examples are the setting up of a local radio station, setting up local milk shops for the pasteurisation and distribution of milk, the creation of cooperative storage facilities for food, especially for food for local consumption, the creation of a seed bank and the draining and re-structuring of market squares and public places. Many such poverty alleviation initiatives may require some project-level formal money funds. Other initiatives, for instance, creating sports clubs, theatre groups, local consultants’ offices, or communications centres, plant nurseries, reforestation etc would typically be done under a combination of the LETS local money systems and the interest-free micro-credit systems.


2.        Political level (what will the structural impact of the action be? Will it bring about an improvement in legislation, codes of conduct, of methods etc?).


One of the most interesting aspects of the project is that no changes in legislation or of existing rules are necessary for it to be put into execution. Project structures do not replace existing ones. They co-exist peacefully and in harmony with them. Users are always free (except for activities direct related to project execution) to choose whether to conduct a give transaction under the existing formal money system or under the local money system set up.


Having said that, success of this first project in (host country) should lead to the adoption of the concepts for a  political strategy of local development at national level, and to pilot projects in other countries. In (host country) about (number) of projects are necessary to ensure national covrage, with a global cost of  (multiply number of projects by Euro 5.000.000 = for example Euro 500.000.000 for 100 projects). The initial executive part of each project lasts just two years. In principle full national coverage can be attained well before 2015.


3.        Environmental and social aspects.


The project is 100% ecological. With reference to the use of energy, it privileges in first place human energy in the form of (paid) manual labour through the local money systems set up which are based on the perceived value of an hour’s work, and on the principles of continuous interest-free recycling of local money and formal money funds at local level.  Secondly, the project privileges the use of renewable energy sources. It eliminates the use of wood for cooking and replaces it with locally produced high-efficiency stoves using locally produced mini-briquettes. Organic and non-organic wastes are recycled  locally. Production techniques using locally available gypsum composites for most of the items needed for project execution are zero-energy activities, requiring no other energy source than the human muscle. Waste waters including grey waters are recycled at household level and in the production units themselves.


With regard to social structures, the social and financial structures set up under the project  offer a three-tiered social security system both under the formal money structures and under the local money structures covering the interests of the elderly, the sick and the handicapped. The local money debits of a sick person can be temporarily released from earning credits at the decision of the local tank commission. Where a problem is permanent, his debits can be redistributed amongst the members of his family, amongst his friends, amongst members of socially oriented groups willing to help the weaker members of society, amongst all of the families referring to a given tank commission, amongst all of the members referring to a well commission, and in the most extreme cases amongst all of the families in the project area. 


2.5 Logical frame


Complete the logical framework chart[1].


See Annexe C Logical frame.xls


Forward: Budget.

Back: Description of the action.

Menu of files for funding  purposes.

Complete index of the Model.

Model Homepage.

Typical list of graphs and drawings.
List of maps.
Documents for funding applications.


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